- Australia has the third largest area of mangroves in the world behind India and Brazil at approximately 6.4% of the world’s total mangrove area. Australia also has the most southerly and highest latitude mangroves in the world at 38°
- 62% of Southern Australia’s seaweeds are found nowhere else on earth!
- Dragons live in the seas of Southern Australia! Three species of Seadragon; Leafy (Phycodurus eques), Common or Weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and Ruby (Phyllopteryx dewysea) Seadragons live only in southern Australian kelp forests, seagrass meadows and sponge gardens. The Ruby seadragon was only declared a new species in 2015 and just recently filmed alive for the first time (April 2016). See video here.
Great Southern Seascapes
The southern coastlines of temperate Australia are home to some of the most diverse collections of underwater seascapes in the world. From giant kelp forests, to vast seagrass meadows, cool-water corals and kaleidoscopic sponge gardens, 85 percent of the estimated 12,000 marine species here are found nowhere else on Earth.
These seascapes provide over 19 million Australians (80 percent of the total population) and five-out-of-eight capital cities with fresh seafood, abundant recreational opportunities and critical waste treatment and removal. Paradoxically, however, southern seascapes are also known as the “forgotten coastlines.” Until now, relatively little attention has been paid to protecting or restoring coastal habitats and the essential human services they provide.
Australia’s oceans are expected to contribute $100 billion per annum to our economy by 2025, yet there is increasing uncertainty in how our oceans will cope with growing exploitation and climate change. Thus, our planning, conservation and investment decisions need to factor in the health and resilience of Australia’s oceans.Dr. Peter Macreadie
Our Australian project, focuses on modelling and mapping the social and economic values of saltmarsh, seagrass and mangrove habitats through a focus on 4 ecosystem services: fisheries, recreation, tourism, blue carbon and coastal protection. We use a geographically nested, case study approach with a focus on marine habitats that occur in Victoria and northern New South Wales, specifically Port Phillip Bay and Western Port (Victoria) and the Richmond River estuary (NSW).
The generalized Mapping Ocean Wealth method can be summarized as “Review–Model–Map”. By reviewing and analyzing existing information about ecosystems and ecological processes (Review), we can use that information to construct new mathematical models, “production functions”, to better understand the social and economic benefits provided by coastal ecosystems (Model), following this we apply the models and create maps (Map) that show the variation and value of specific locations/regions relative to others. OzMOW has broadly followed this approach, however data isn’t always available to review, so a new, very conventional step has been added “Review–Collect–Model–Map”. To this end the MOW Oz team have been out amongst Australia’s mangroves, seagrass and saltmarsh collecting new data. The data collecting step has enabled us to use a number of novel and exciting technologies, but also some well established tools of the trade.
Scientific use of unmanned aerial vehicles or drones is growing.
Mobile Phones & Satellites
Mobile phone and GPS data has recently been used to monitor human population changes almost in real time (REFS).
Soil Cores & Measuring Tape
The OzMOW team are collecting sediment core samples and taking vegetation measurements from saltmarsh, mangroves, and seagrasses across southeastern Australia.
Applications and Case Studies
Port Phillip Bay
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port lie on the doorstep of Melbourne, Australia’s second largest and fastest growing city with a population of 4.4 million people. Within these bays lies an intermingling network of saltmarsh, mangroves and seagrass habitats. Importantly, these marine habitats are the only habitats on earth that can store atmospheric carbon dioxide for millennia.
It is estimated that Melbourne’s marine habitats store the equivalent of 5% of the city’s annual carbon emissions and enhance our coastal fisheries, at the rate of 1 kg of fish per year, just those two benefits are worth up to $110m annually. These, and other findings were part of a case study on ecosystem services written for the Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability Victoria and its 2016 State of the Bays Report. This included preliminary maps developed for coastal blue carbon and fish productivity for Victoria.
The Mapping Ocean Wealth project in Australia is a partnership between The Nature Conservancy, Deakin University, Department of Land Water and Planning, Victoria, Victorian Fisheries Authority, Parks Victoria, NSW Department of Primary Industries – Fisheries, and NSW Office of Environment and Heritage with support from The Thomas Foundation, HSBC Australia, Ian Potter Foundation and Australian Research Council.
Richmond River Estuary
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Additional Media and Information
Project Team & Partners
Dr. Paul Carnell
Dr. Peter Macreadie
References & Photo Credits
Duke, N. C. (2006). Australia’s mangroves: the authoritative guide to Australia’s mangrove plants.
Phillips, J. A. (2001). Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora?. Biodiversity & Conservation, 10(9), 1555-1577.
Rouse, G. W., Stiller, J., & Wilson, N. G. (2017). First live records of the ruby seadragon (Phyllopteryx dewysea, Syngnathidae). Marine Biodiversity Records, 10(1), 2. https://mbr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41200-016-0102-x